Mexico: Heavy-duty: Emissions

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1 Overview

2 History

A proposed modification to existing heavy-duty vehicle emissions standards was published on December 17, 2014 in the federal diary. The 60-day public comment period has closed and publication of the final standards is expected in 2015.

Emissions standards for both light- and heavy-duty vehicles were first established in 1988 and became effective in model year 1993 (NOM-044-ECOL-1993). The standard NOM-044-SEMARNAT-2006 was adopted in 2006 as an update to NOM-044-SEMARNAT-1993, and it establishes emission limits for total hydrocarbons, non-methane hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particles, and opacity for new heavy-duty diesel engines. The standard allows compliance with either US 2004 or Euro IV equivalent standards. NOM-076-SEMARNAT-2012, was adopted on 27 November 2012 and establishes emissions for hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide and evaporative emission limits for hydrocarbons for new heavy-duty engines that use gasoline, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), natural gas or other alternative fuels.

Mandatory compliance with EPA 2004/Euro IV standards began in July 2008, however, the relevant standard was modified in 2011 by an Acuerdo (agreement) from SEMARNAT to extend the regulatory timeline for compliance with EPA 2004/Euro IV standards to June 2014.

3 Technical Standards

Both NOM-044-SEMARNAT-2006 (diesel) and NOM-076-SEMARNAT-2012 (gasoline) are applicable to new engines intended for use in vehicles with a gross vehicle weight greater than 3,857 kg (8,500 lbs.) or for new vehicles of this size.

3.1 Diesel Engine Standards

3.1.1 1993-2014

Emission standards for new heavy-duty diesel engines first became effective in model year 1993 and were based on US 1991 and later requirements, including the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) FTP transient test cycle. Standards for MY 1993-1998 were equivalent to US standards and compliance could be demonstrated through certification by US EPA. Under NOM-044, engines in Mexico are provided compliance options and can meet European standards, as measured on the official European test cycles (ETC and ESC), as an alternative to the EPA-based standards; compliance with standards can be demonstrated through:

  • Letter or proof issued by motor manufacturer, including earnings report issued by the testing laboratory,
  • Certificate or proof issued by the Environmental Protection Authority of the country of origin or country of certification, or
  • Certificate issued by Certification Bodies for the country of origin or country of certification.

In 2006, the standard NOM-044-SEMARNAT-2006 was adopted as an update to NOM-044-ECOL-1993. It establishes emission limits for total hydrocarbons, non-methane hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particles, and opacity for new heavy-duty diesel engines. The standard allows compliance with either US 2004 or Euro IV equivalent standards. The emission standards compliance timeline and current equivalent limit values of the 1993 and 2006 standards are outlined below:

Max. Permissible Emissions Standards
Heavy-duty Vehicles
Compliance
Year Compliance Equivalent
1993 US EPA 1991
1994 US EPA 1994
1998 US EPA 1998
2006-2008 US EPA 1998 or Euro III
2008 US EPA 2004 or Euro IV
Notes:

extended through 2014.06; later requirements are not specified.

Maximum Permissible Emissions for Heavy-duty Vehicles
limit values expressed as grams per brake horsepower-hour (g/bhp-hr)
Standard HC NMHC+NOx CO NOx Smoke
opacity %
(acceleration)
Smoke opacity %
(pull)
Smoke opacity %
(peak)
A1 1.3 N/A 15.5 4.0 20 15 50
B2 N/A 2.43 15.5 N/A 20 15 50
Notes:
1. Standard A Maximum permissible limits for engines and/or new units produced from 2006 until June 2008, obtained using the FTP (Federal Test Procedure) heavy-duty transient cycle.
2. Standard B Maximum permissible limits for engines and/or new units produced from July 2008 until July 2014, obtained using the SET (Supplemental Emissions Test).
3. Limit value could be 2.5 provided the NMHC are less than 0.5

Maximum Permissible Emissions for Heavy-duty Vehicles
limit values expressed as grams per kilowatt hour (g/kwhr)
Standard Test Method HC NMHC CO NOx Part Smoke Opacity3
A1 ESC 0.66 N/A 2.1 5.0 0.10 N/A
ETC N/A 0.78 5.45 5.0 0.16 N/A
B2 ESC 0.46 N/A 1.5 3.5 0.02 N/A
ETC N/A 0.55 4.0 3.5 0.03 N/A
Notes:
1. Standard A Maximum permissible limits for engines and/or new units produced from 2006 until June 2008, obtained using the ESC (European Stationary Cycle) and ETC (European Transient Cycle).
2. Standard B Maximum permissible limits for engines and/or new units produced from July 2008 until July 2014, obtained using the ESC (European Stationary Cycle) and ETC (European Transient Cycle).
3. The European Load Response (ELR) engine test has no applicable limit values in the above table except under Smoke Opacity, where values are 0.8 and 0.5 for standards A and B, respectively.

3.1.2 2015-2018

A proposed modification to existing heavy-duty vehicle emissions standards was published on December 17, 2014 in the federal diary. The 60-day public comment period closed in March 2015. Publication of the final standards has been delayed but is expected in 2016.

3.1.2.1 Overview

The proposed regulation will still apply to diesel engines or full vehicles with a gross vehicle weight above 3,857 kg. The following table shows the timing and certification requirements of the proposed standard. Standard A, in force from the adoption of the proposal through 2017, is essentially the same as the current NOM-044 standard; starting in 2018, Standard B requires compliance with either Euro VI/6 or EPA 2010 standards.

Framework of the proposed standards
Timeframe NOM-044 Standard Certification Requirement
2015-2017 1A EPA 2004
2A Euro IV
Beginning Jan. 1, 2018 1B EPA 2010
3B
2B Euro VI
4B Euro 6
3.1.2.2 Limit values

Limit values for heavy-duty engines are shown in the following tables. Limits are set in grams per brake horsepower-hour (g/bhp-hr) for EPA 2004 and EPA 2010 standards, and are in grams per kilowatt-hour (g/kWh) for Euro IV and Euro VI standards. Particle number and ammonia (NH3) limits are set as part of the Euro VI standards but have not been defined as limit values under EPA standards.

U.S. certification limit values for heavy-duty engines
Certification Requirement Standard Test Method CO NOx NMHC HCNM + NOx PM Particle Number
(#/kWh)
NH3
g/bhp-hr
EPA 2004 1A SET & FTP 15.5 2.4 0.10
0.5 2.5
EPA 2010 1B SET & FTP 15.5 0.20 0.14 0.01
European certification limit values for heavy-duty engines
Certification Requirement Standard Test Method CO NOx NMHC HC PM Particle Number
(#/kWh)
NH3
g/kWh
Euro IV 2A ESC 1.5 3.5 0.46 0.02
ETC 4.0 3.5 0.55 0.03
Euro VI 2B WHSC 1.5 0.4 0.13 0.01 8.0 x 1011 10
WHTC 4.0 0.46 0.16 0.01 6.0 x 1011 10

Useful life is defined as the reference values (measured in vehicle-km and years) that are used in durability tests for new engine or vehicle certification. Useful life does not refer to in-use vehicle emissions, nor is it equivalent to the manufacturer warranty.

Useful life requirements
Certification Requirement Standard Gross Vehicle
Weight (kg)
Useful Life
Distance (km) Time (years)
EPA 2004 &
EPA 2010
1A & 1B 3,857 - 8,845 177,023 10
8,846 - 14,970 297,721
14,971 and larger 700,046
Euro IV 2A 3,857 - 15,999 200,000 6
16,000 and larger 500,000 7
Euro VI 2B 3,857 - 15,999 300,000 6
16,000 and larger 700,000 7

The proposed standard includes optional alternative certification limits for medium-duty complete vehicles starting in 2018. The 2015-2017 standards do not include options for complete vehicle certification because these options are only available in the EPA 2010 and Euro VI standards. The following tables includes the optional pathways for certification of complete vehicles.

U.S. certification limit values and useful life requirements for medium-duty vehicles
Certification Option Standard Gross Vehicle
Weight (kg)
Test Cycle CO NOx NMHC PM Particle Number
(#/km)
Useful Life
g/km km years
EPA 2010 3B 3,857 - 4,539 FTP 75 0.124 0.121 0.012 177,023 10
4,540 - 6,350 0.249 0.143 0.012
European certification limit values and useful life requirements for medium-duty vehicles
Certification Option Standard Reference
Mass (kg)
Test Cycle CO NOx HC + NOx PM Particle Number
(#/km)
Useful Life
g/km km years
Euro 6 4B ≤ 2,840 NEDC 0.74 0.125 0.215 0.005 6.0 x 1011 160,000 5

The 3B pathway was introduced because EPA 2010 standards provide an option to certify vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of less than 6,350 kg as complete vehicles on a chassis dynamometer, using the same FTP 75 drive test cycle that is used for light-duty emissions standards. The g/km limit values included in the proposal are taken directly from EPA 2010 heavy-duty emissions standards. The 4B pathway was introduced due to a change in metrics for weight ratings in Euro VI standards for heavy-duty vehicles and Euro 5 and 6 standards for light-duty vehicles. The previous European standards had defined heavy-duty vehicles as having a technically permissible maximum laden mass greater than 3.5 tons, whereas the new standards define heavy-duty vehicles according to their reference, or unloaded, mass. This change means that some vehicles sold will have a GVWR higher than 3,857 kg but a reference mass below the 2,610 kg cut-off under European standards. These vehicles would then be subject to light-duty Euro 6 standards in the EU, rather than heavy-duty Euro VI standards. In order to ensure that any vehicle certified to Euro 6 standards could be sold in Mexico, the proposed standard makes complete vehicle certification an option for all vehicles with a reference mass less than or equal to 2,840 kg, the maximum allowable under light-duty Euro 6 standards.

3.1.2.3 On-Board Diagnostics and Compliance Inducements

The proposed standards require the installation and operation of full On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) systems on all new vehicles. The type of OBD system must be recorded in the certification documentation. Appendix B of the proposal provides a detailed explanation of the general system requirements and attendant documentation. As both EPA and Euro standards require the full phase-in of OBD systems before 2018, the proposal relies on certification documentation as the primary proof of compliance with OBD requirements. Similarly, the proposal requires that new vehicles and engines that use a reagent for NOx-reducing SCR systems are also equipped with operating alerts and driver inducements to ensure the correct functioning of these systems. These failsafes include lights, auditory alarms and requirements to safely limit vehicle operation in the case of improper use, such as poor quality diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) or insufficient DEF supply. Appendix C provides a detailed explanation of the system requirements and attendant documentation.

3.1.2.4 Provisional Limitations

The proposal includes five transitorios, or provisional limitations to the standard. The first two and the final provisions are common limitations, specifying that the standard comes into force 60 days after publication, that it replaces the existing NOM-044 standard, and that currently valid certificates issued under the existing standard will be valid until the application of the B standards established under the new proposal. Two additional provisions are more unique to this proposal. The third provision states that in January 2017, SEMARNAT will evaluate the national availability of ultralow-sulfur diesel in order to determine if the conditions exist for compliance with the B standards. In the case that availability is insufficient, the Secretary will delay the entry into force of the B standards by 12 months. The fourth provision allows manufacturers to sell existing inventories of vehicles that were produced during the application of standard A for up to six months after the implementation of standard B. The intent is to provide a reasonable period of transition while protecting against stockpiling of old inventory.

3.2 Gasoline, LPG, and NG Engine Standards

Emission standards for new heavy-duty engines fueled by gasoline, LPG, natural gas and other alternative fuels are specified by the NOM-076 standard, adopted in 1995, with later amendments in 2012. Similar to the diesel regulations, the emission standards are applicable to gas engines used in vehicles of GVW > 3,857 kg (8,500 lbs).

Gasoline and gaseous fueled engines are tested over the FTP transient test and must meet the US EPA-based emission standards shown in the following 2 tables.

Maximum Permissible Emissions for Heavy-duty Vehicles
Standard GVW HC
(g/bhp-hr)
NMHC
(g/bhp-hr)
CO
(g/bhp-hr)
NOx
(g/bhp-hr)
HCev3
g/test
A1 3,857kg ≤ GVW ≤ 6,350kg 1.1 N/A 14.4 4.0 3.0
> 6,350kg 1.9 N/A 37.1 4.0 3.0
B2 3,857kg ≤ GVW ≤ 6,350kg N/A 0.14 14.4 0.2 1.75
> 6,350kg N/A 0.14 14.4 0.2 2.3
Notes:
  1. Standard A refers to the maximum allowable limits for new units from the input into force until Standard B enters into force.
  2. Standard B provides the maximum allowable limits for new units produced, provided that there is full availability nationwide Magna gasoline or replacing it with content average of 30 ppm and 80 ppm maximum sulfur. These limits are tested using the test method Transient cycle. The implementation of this standard shall be 18 months after publication in the Official Journal of the Federation of the notice of full availability throughout the country.
  3. HCev measurement applies only to gasoline vehicles and LPG

Natural gas engines can alternatively be tested over the European Transition Cycle; relevant standards are show in the following table.

Maximum permissible emission for engines using natural gas as fuel
Standard CH4
(g/bhp-hr)
NMHC
(g/bhp-hr)
CO
(g/bhp-hr)
NOx
(g/bhp-hr)
Part
g/kWh
A 1.10 0.55 4.00 3.5 N/A
B 1.10 0.55 4.00 2.00 0.03
Notes:
  1. The limits included in this table apply only to those engines designed and built to meet the European Transient Cycle.
  2. Standard A refers to the maximum allowable limits for engines and new units produced until June 2014. These limits will be tested using the test method European Transient Cycle.
  3. Standard B rovides the maximum allowable limits for engines and new units produced from July 2014. These limits will be tested using the test method European Transient Cycle (CET).

Manufacturers may choose to certify gasoline and gaseous fueled vehicles with GVW up to 6,356 kg (14,000 lbs) on a chassis dynamometer over the FTP-75 cycle. The table below summarizes emission standards for chassis-certified vehicles.

Emission Standards for Chassis-Certified Heavy-Duty Vehicles (3,857kg ≤ GVW ≤ 6,350kg)
Standard GVW NMHC
(g/km)
CO
(g/km)
NOx
(g/km)
HCev
g/test
A 3,857 - 4,536 kg 0.285 3.418 0.807 3.0
4,537 - 6,356 kg 0.372 4.350 1.243 3.0
B 3,857 - 4,536 kg 0.121 3.977 0.124 1.75
4,537 - 6,356 kg 0.142 4.536 0.248 2.30
Notes:
  1. HCev measurement applies only to gasoline vehicles and LPG
  2. Standard A refers to the maximum allowable limits for new units from the input into force until Standard B enters into force.
  3. Standard B provides the maximum allowable limits for new units produced, provided that there is full availability nationwide Magna gasoline or replacing it with content average of 30 ppm and 80 ppm maximum sulfur. The implementation of this standard shall be 18 months after publication in the Official Journal of the Federation of the notice of full availability throughout the country.

4 Links

4.1 Regulatory Documents

4.2 Notes