Japan: Light-duty: Emissions

From Transportpolicy.net
Jump to: navigation, search
Asia
China
India
Japan
Russia
Iran


Contents

1 Overview

2 History

Japan first established emissions limits for light-duty vehicles in the 1970's. Limit values for new vehicles are set by the Ministry of the Environment under authority of Japan's Air Pollution Control Law. Since 2000, exhaust emission standards have been strengthened three times: in 2000-2002 (the "New Short Term Standards"), in 2005-2007 (the "New Long Term Standards"), and in 2009-2010 (the "Post New Long Term Standards"). Japan’s New Post Long-Term Regulations were introduced in October 2009 and are similar in stringency to the Euro 6 standards (which will come into effect in 2014). Testing is conducted over Japan-specific drive cycles.

3 Technical Standards

Two types of exhaust emission standards are established in Japan, denoted as “mean” and “max.” The “mean” standards are to be met as a type approval limit and as a production average. The “max” standards are to be met generally as an individual limit in series production and as type approval limit if sales are less than 2000 per vehicle model per year. The “max” standards are shown in parentheses in the following tables.

Implementation dates in the tables refer to new vehicle models. Current production models are often allowed a delay of up to one year.

3.1 Diesel Vehicles

Emission standards for new diesel powered cars are listed below. The test method is the 10-15 mode cycle (which superseded the older 10-mode cycle effective November 1991 for domestic cars and April 1993 for imports). The 2005 regulation introduced a new JC08 mode cycle which will be fully phased-in by 2011. Vehicles are tested using 50 ppm S fuel for the 2005 standards.

Japanese Emission Standards for Diesel Passenger Cars, g/km
Curb WeightDateTestCOHCNOxPM
mean (max)mean (max)mean (max)mean (max)
< 1250 kg* 198610-15 mode 2.1 (2.7)0.40 (0.62) 0.70 (0.98) 
1990 2.1 (2.7)0.40 (0.62) 0.50 (0.72) 
1994 2.1 (2.7)0.40 (0.62) 0.50 (0.72)0.20 (0.34)
1997 2.1 (2.7)0.40 (0.62) 0.40 (0.55)0.08 (0.14)
2002a0.63 0.12 0.28 0.052
2005bJC08c 0.63 0.024d0.14 0.013
2009 0.63 0.024d0.08 0.005
> 1250 kg* 198610-15 mode 2.1 (2.7)0.40 (0.62)0.90 (1.26) 
1992 2.1 (2.7)0.40 (0.62)0.60 (0.84) 
1994 2.1 (2.7)0.40 (0.62)0.60 (0.84)0.20 (0.34)
1998 2.1 (2.7)0.40 (0.62)0.40 (0.55)0.08 (0.14)
2002a0.63 0.12 0.30 0.056
2005bJC08c 0.63 0.024d0.15 0.014
2009e 0.63 0.024d0.08 0.005
Notes:
* - equivalent inertia weight (EIW); vehicle weight of 1265 kg
a - 2002.10 for domestic cars, 2004.09 for imports
b - full implementation by the end of 2005
c - full phase-in by 2011
d - non-methane hydrocarbons
e - 2009.10 for new domestic models; 2010.09 for existing models & imports
Diesel Emission Standards for Light Commercial Vehicles
Curb Weight ≤ 3500 kg (≤ 2500 kg before 2005)
Curb WeightDateTestUnitCOHCNOxPM
mean (max)mean (max)mean (max)mean (max)
≤ 1700 kg 198810-15 modeg/km 2.1 (2.7)0.40 (0.62)0.90 (1.26) 
1993 2.1 (2.7)0.40 (0.62)0.60 (0.84)0.20 (0.34)
1997 2.1 (2.7)0.40 (0.62)0.40 (0.55)0.08 (0.14)
2002 0.63 0.12 0.28 0.052
2005bJC08c 0.63 0.024d0.140.013
2009 0.63 0.024d0.080.005
> 1700 kg 19886 modeppm 790 (980)510 (670)DI: 380 (500)
IDI: 260 (350)
 
199310-15 modeg/km 2.1 (2.7)0.40 (0.62)1.30 (1.82)0.25 (0.43)
1997a2.1 (2.7)0.40 (0.62)0.70 (0.97)0.09 (0.18)
2003 0.63 0.12 0.49 0.06
2005bJC08c 0.63 0.024d0.250.015
2009e 0.63 0.024d0.150.007
Notes:
a - 1997: manual transmission vehicles; 1998: automatic transmission vehicles
b - full implementation by the end of 2005
c - full phase-in by 2011
d - non-methane hydrocarbons
e - 2009.10 for new domestic models; 2010.09 for existing models & imports

3.2 Gasoline Vehicles

Emission standards for new gasoline powered cars are listed below.

Four stroke gasoline passenger vehicles
Date1 Test mode Unit Maximum allowable emissions2
CO NMHC3 NOx PM
1973 10 mode g/km 26.0 3.80 3.00 -----
19754 10 mode g/km 2.70 0.39 1.60 -----
11 mode g/test 85.0 9.50 11.0 -----
1976 10 mode g/km 2.70 0.39 1.20 -----
11 mode g/test 85.0 9.50 9.00 -----
1978 10 mode g/km 2.70 0.39 0.48 -----
11 mode g/test 85.0 9.50 6.00 -----
2000 10 mode g/km 1.27 (0.67) 0.17 (0.08) 0.17 (0.08) -----
11 mode g/test 31.1 (19.0) 4.42 (2.20) 2.50 (1.40) -----
2005 10-15 mode + 11 mode g/km 1.92 (1.15) 0.08 (0.05) 0.08 (0.05) -----
2008 10-15 mode + JC08C g/km 1.92 (1.15) 0.08 (0.05) 0.08 (0.05) -----
2009 JC08H+C g/km 1.92 (1.15) 0.08 (0.05) 0.08 (0.05) 0.007 (0.005)
Notes:
  1. Application to new models produced by domestic manufacturers. Applicability to continuing models and imports typically delayed by one to two years.
  2. Values in parentheses denote regulatory (average) limits
  3. HC prior to 1999
  4. Inertial weight greater than 1000 kg

4 Links

4.1 Regulatory Documents

New Post Long-Term Standards

Historical Emission Standards

4.2 Regulatory Agencies

Ministry of the Environment (MOE)

4.3 Additional Resources

The Motor Industry of Japan report, JAMA, May 2013

Personal tools
Namespaces

Variants
Actions
... a joint effort of ICCT and DieselNet

TransportPolicy.net

Regions
Modes
Policies
Feedback
Toolbox