International: Fuels: ISO Petroleum Marine Fuels

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1 History

ISO 8216 and ISO 8217 standards describe the categories of marine fuels and provide detailed specifications, respectively. These specifications were developed to meet the requirements for marine fuels supplied on a world-wide basis for consumption on board ships. Internationally, a large number of residual fuel categories are available due to variations in crude oil supplies, refining methods, ship machinery characteristics and other local conditions. However, at a local or national level, the number of available categories can be limited.

While ISO 8217 takes into account various international requirements for such properties as flash point and sulfur, it is up to the user to identify and ensure compliance with all local, national and regional requirements.

ASTM D2069, adopted in 1991, was intended to be technically equivalent to ISO 8217. It was withdrawn in 2003.

Classification

The detailed classification of marine fuels into categories of products is based on the main applications and characteristics of the products. The classification is broadly broken down into distillate fuels and residual fuels.

The products are designated by a code that consists of:

1. The initials ISO,
2. The letter F (for petroleum fuels),
3. The category of fuel, consisting of three letters:
  • the first letter of this category is always the family letter (D for distillate or R for residual);
  • the second letter, M, designates the application “Marine”,
  • the third letter, X, A, B, C, …, K, which indicates the particular properties in the product specification (ISO 8217),
4. for residual fuels, a number which corresponds to the maximum kinematic viscosity, in mm2/s, at 50°C.

For example a product may be designated in the complete form, e.g. ISO-F-RMA 10, or in abbreviated form, e.g. F-RMA 10.

2 Technical Standards

The fourth edition of ISO specifications for 8216 and ISO 8217 was released in June 2010 and are available on the ISO website for purchase, www.iso.org. (description of 2010 standard)

2.1 ISO 8217 Fuel Standard, Third Edition 2005

Marine Distillate Fuels
ParameterUnitLimitDMXDMADMBDMC
Density at 15 °Ckg/m³Max-890.0900.0920.0
Viscosity at 40 ° Cmm²/sMax5.56.011.014.0
Viscosity at 40 °Cmm²/sMin1.41.5--
Micro Carbon Residue
at 10% Residue
% m/mMax0.300.30--
Micro Carbon Residue% m/mMax--0.302.50
Water% V/VMax--0.30.3
Sulfur c % (m/m)Max1.01.52.02.0
Total Sediment Existent% m/mMax--0.100.10
Ash% m/mMax0.010.010.010.05
Vanadiummg/kgMax---100
Aluminium + Siliconmg/kgMax---25
Flash point°CMin43606060
Pour point, Summer°CMax-066
Pour point, Winter°CMax--600
Cloud point°CMax-16---
Calculated Cetane Index Min454035-
Appearance Clear & Bright--
Zinc d mg/kgMax--15
Phosphorus d mg/kgMax--15
Calcium d mg/kgMax--30
c A sulfur limit of 1.5% m/m will apply in SOx Emission Control Areas designated by the International Maritime Organization, when its relevant Protocol comes into force. There may be local variations
dThe Fuel shall be free of ULO.
A Fuel is considered to be free of ULO if one or more of the elements are below the limits.All three elements shall exceed the limits before deemed to contain ULO.
Marine Residual Fuels
ParameterUnitLimitRMA
30
RMB
30
RMD
80
RME
180
RMF
180
RMG
380
RMH
380
RMK
380
RMH
700
RMK
700
Density at 15 °Ckg/m³Max960.0975.0980.0991.0991.01010.0991.01010.0
Viscosity at 50°Cmm²/sMax30.080.0180.0380.0700
Water% V/VMax0.50.50.50.50.5
Micro Carbon Residue% m/mMax10141520182222
Sulfur c % m/mMax3.54.004.504.504.50
Ash% m/mMax0.100.100.100.150.150.150.15
Vanadiummg/kgMax150350200500300600600
Flash point°CMin6060606060
Pour point, Summer°CMax62430303030
Pour point, Winter°CMax02430303030
Aluminium + Siliconmg/kgMax8080808080
Total Sediment,Potential% m/mMax0.100.100.100.100.10
Zinc d mg/kgMax15
Phosphorus d mg/kgMax15
Calcium d mg/kgMax30
c A sulfur limit of 1.5% m/m will apply in SOx Emission Control Areas designated by the International Maritime Organization, when its relevant Protocol comes into force. There may be local variations.
d The Fuel shall be free of ULO.
A Fuel is considered to be free of ULO if one or more of the elements are below the limits.All three elements shall exceed the limits before deemed to contain ULO.