EU: Motorcycles: Emissions

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Contents

1 Overview

  • Standard type: Conventional pollutant emission limits
  • Regulating body: European Union (European Commission, Parliament, Council, and Member States)
  • Current standard: Euro 3, Directive 2002/51/EC
  • Future standards: Regulation (EU) No 168/2013: Euro 4 emission standards for motorbikes from 2016 and mopeds from 2017; Euro 5 standards for all two- or three-wheel vehicles from 2020.
  • Applicability: New and existing Category L vehicles: Mopeds, Motorcycles, Motor Tricycles and Quadricycles

2 History

On 17 June 1997, Directive 97/24/EC implemented Euro 1 standards to reduce air pollutant emissions from two- and three-wheel vehicles, which are referred to in later directives as Category L vehicles. Standards were adopted in two stages for mopeds and one stage for motorcycles. Directive 2002/51/EC amended Directive 97/24/EC on 19 July 2002 and implemented standards Euro 2 and 3 for motorcycles.

Emission Regulations Timetable for Euro 1-3
Standard Class Type Approval Date First Registration Date Regulation
Euro 1 Mopeds, motorcycles and tricycles 17 June 1999 Directive 97/24/EC
Euro 2 Mopeds 17 June 2002 Directive 2002/51/EC
Three-wheelers 1 January 2003 1 July 2004
Motorcycles 1 April 2004 1 July 2005
Euro 3 Motorcycles 1 January 2006 1 July 2007

Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 was issued in January 2013 and expanded the number of L-categories and established implementation dates for Euro 4 and 5. From an air quality perspective, the primary objective is to keep constant or reduce the share of total road-transport emissions from L-category vehicles as compared to other road vehicle categories.

Emission Regulations Timetable for Euro 4 and 5
Standard Sub-category Enforcement dates Regulation
New types of vehicles Existing types of vehicles Last date of registration
Euro 4 L1e, L2e, L6e 1 January 2017 1 January 2018 31 December 2020 Regulation (EU) No 168/2013
L3e, L4e, L5e, L7e 1 January 2016 1 January 2017 31 December 2020
Euro 5 L1e-L7e 1 January 2020 1 January 2021 -

3 Technical Standards

3.1 Euro 2 and 3

Directive 2002/51/EC aimed at reducing the level of pollutant emissions from two- and three-wheel motor vehicles by tightening the limit values for such emissions from 2003 through 2006. There were no updates to motorcycle emissions standards from 2007 and through 2012.

Emission Standards for Two and Three-Wheelers
Two-Wheelers CO
(g/km)
HC
(g/km)
NOx
(g/km)
Euro 2
2004.04.01
< 150 cc 5.50 1.20 0.30
≥ 150 cc 5.50 1.00 0.30


Euro 3
2006.01.01
< 150 cc 2.00 0.80 0.15
≥ 150 cc 2.00 0.30 0.15
Three-Wheelers CO
(g/km)
HC
(g/km)
NOx
(g/km)
Euro 2
2003.01.01
All Gasoline 7.00 1.50 0.40
All Diesel 2.00 1.00 0.65

Test Cycles

Under the Euro 2 and Euro 3 standards, the test cycle for mopeds was ECE Reg 40 and the test cycle for motorcycles and tricycles was ECE Reg 47.

3.2 Euro 4 and 5

In 2013, Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 expanded the number of L-categories and updated implementation dates for Euro 4 and 5 standards. The updated regulation explicitly covers hybrid vehicles also. The regulation sets more stringent emission standards for hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). Euro 4 also introduces OBD stage 1 requirements for motorcycles and three-wheelers. Reporting of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions as part of the type approval process is now required.

The following tables outline the emission limits and test cycles for Euro 4 and 5.

Euro 4 Tailpipe Emission Limits After Cold Start
Vehicle Category Vehicle category name Propulsion class CO
(g/km)
THC
(g/km)
NOx
(g/km)
PM
(g/km)
Test Cycle
L1Ae Powered cycle PI/CI/Hybrid 0.56 0.10 0.07 - UNECE R47
L1Be Two-wheel moped PI/CI/Hybrid 1.00 0.63 0.17 -
L2e Three-wheel moped PI/CI/Hybrid 1.90 0.73 0.17 -
L3e
L4e*
L5Ae
L7Ae
• Two-wheel motorcycle w/ & w/o sidecar
• Tricycle
• Heavy on-road quad
PI/PI Hybrid, vmax<130km/h 1.14 0.38 0.07 - WMTC, phase 2
PI/PI Hybrid, vmax≥130km/h 1.14 0.17 0.09 -
CI/Cl Hybrid 1.00 0.10 0.30 0.08
L5Be Commercial tricycle PI/PI Hybrid 2.00 0.55 0.25 - UNECE R40
Cl/Cl Hybrid 1.00 0.10 0.55 0.08
L6Ae
L6Be
Light on-road quad
Light quadrimobile
PI/PI Hybrid 1.90 0.73 0.17 - UNECE R47
Cl/Cl Hybrid 1.00 0.10 0.55 0.08
L7Be
L7Ce
Heavy all terrain quad
Heavy quadrimobile
PI/PI Hybrid 2.00 0.55 0.25 - UNECE R40
Cl/Cl Hybrid 1.00 0.10 0.55 0.08
Note:
* Only the base two-wheel motorcycle to which the side-car is fitted must meet the appropriate emission limits.
† CI only, also if e.g. a hybrid concept includes a CI engine.
Euro 5 Tailpipe Emission Limits After Cold Start
Vehicle Category Vehicle category name Propulsion class CO
(g/km)
THC
(g/km)
NOx
(g/km)
PM
(g/km)
Test Cycle
L1Ae Powered cycle PI/CI/Hybrid 0.50 THC 0.10
NHMC 0.068
0.060 0.0045* Revised WMTC
L1Be-L7e All other L-category vehicles PI/Pl Hybrid 1.00 0.060 0.0045* Revised WMTC
Cl/Cl Hybrid 0.50 0.060 0.0045
Note:
* Applicable to petrol direct injection (DI) engines only
† The environmental effect study in Article 23(4) and (5) will also report on the feasibility for L-category vehicles other than L3e, L5e-A and L7e-A to be emission-tested in a revised WMTC.

4 Links

4.1 Regulatory Documents

  • Test cycle information can be found in Appendix I
  • Corrections and amendments are found on the ECE website

4.2 Notes

Additional Resources

  • ICCT Policy Update: Proposed Emissions Standards for Two- and Three-Wheeled Vehicles in Europe
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